In the tenth century Cordoba , with half a million inhabitants, was the largest, most educated and affluent city in the world.
Cordoba contains architectural reminders of its time as capital of Andalusia province during the Roman Empire and the Caliphate of Cordoba during the Muslim invasion. Its historic center was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1984.
Mosques, libraries, baths and souks abounded in the city, laying the foundations of European renaissance. While Europe was plunged into darkness, Cordoba revelled in the light of literature and science.
Cordoba was the birthplace of three great philosophers: the Roman Seneca, the Muslim Averroes and the Jewish Maimonides.
In Roman era there came to be as many buildings as Rome and it subsequently occupied an important place in the province of Spania of the Byzantine Empire. But it was not until it became the Independent Emirate Umayyad Caliphate, when it reached its highest peak. In this era its most famous monument, the Mosque of Cordoba, was built.
In 1236 it was reconquered by King Fernando III El Santo for Castilla.
Surrounding the extensive historical center is the ancient Roman Wall in which paintings and doors are preserved.